Solid and Liquid Waste Management

The objective of SBM(G) is to bring about improvement in the cleanliness, hygiene and the general quality of life in rural areas. Solid and Liquid Waste Management (SLWM) is one of the key components of the programme. To create clean villages, it is essential that the IEC interventions focus on Solid and Liquid Waste Management so as to create a felt need for these activities amongst the population. This must lead to the setting up of systems for the scientific disposal of waste in such a way that has a tangible impact on the population. The Community /Gram panchayat has to be motivated to come forward and demand for such a system, which they have to subsequently operate and maintain.

Once the demand is created, to ensure that the resources are used efficiently, SLWM is to be taken up in project mode for each Gram Panchayat (GP) with financial assistance capped for a GP on number of household basis to enable all GPs to implement sustainable SLWM projects. The total assistance under SBM(G) for SLWM projects shall be worked out on the basis of total number of households in each GP, subject to a maximum of Rs.7 lakh for a GP having up to 150 households, Rs.12 lakh up to 300 households, Rs.15 lakh up to 500 households and Rs.20 lakh for GPs having more than 500 households. Funding for SLWM project under SBM(G) is provided by the Central and State Government in the ratio of 75:25. Any additional cost requirement is to be met with funds from the State/GP, and from other sources like Finance Commission funding, CSR, Swachh Bharat Khosh and through the PPP model.

Under Solid and Liquid Waste Management, the following activities inter-alia may be undertaken:

i. For Solid Waste Management: States are to decide the technologies suitable to their areas. Technologies identified by the Committee on Technologies may also be considered for implementation. Collection, segregation and safe disposal of household garbage, decentralised systems like household composting and biogas plants shall be permitted. Activities related to maximum reuse of organic solid wastes as manure should be adopted. Such technologies may include vermi-composting, NADEP composting, or any other composting method, individual and community biogas plants. Funds allocated for Solid and Liquid Waste Management may be used to implement safe disposal solutions for menstrual waste (used sanitary cloths and pads) and setting up incinerators in Schools, Women’s Community Sanitary Complexes, Primary Health Centre, or in any other suitable place in village and collection mechanisms etc can be taken up. Technologies may include appropriate options that are socially acceptable and environmentally safe.

ii. For Liquid Waste Management: States are to identify suitable technologies. Methods adopted for management of liquid wastes may focus on maximum reuse of such waste for agriculture purposes with least operation and maintenance costs. For collection of waste water, low cost drainage/ small bore system, soakage pit may be adopted.

For treatment of waste water the following technologies may inter-alia be considered:

a. Waste Stabilization Pond (WSP) technology- Waste stabilization ponds (WSPs)

b. Duckweed based waste water treatment.

c. Phyto roid Technology (developed by NEERI)

d. Anaerobic decentralized waste water treatment.

For details of the technologies suitable for rural areas, a handbook “Technical options for Solid and Liquid Waste Management in Rural areas” and other publications under preparation to be issued by the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation may be referred. These publications can be accessed on the website under the head “Publication” or on URL http://

All GPs are to be targeted for coverage with a SLWM project. SLWM Projects for each GP should be part of the annual District Plan. The Annual District Plan should be approved by State level Scheme Sanctioning Committee (SLSSC). Each individual SLWM project may be approved at the DWSC level as per the technical and financial rules of the individual states. The objective is to initiate SLWM projects in all GPs without delay. 5.10.5 Every State should have at least one SLWM Consultant at the State level and one SLWM Consultant in each District DWSM/DWSC to guide the preparations of the SLWM projects for each GP. Assistance of Professional agencies/NGOs may be sought to prepare/develop /test/ implement such projects. The Project preparation, supervision and monitoring costs of SLWM projects payable to such Agencies may be made a part of the project cost itself. Maintenance costs for the first 5 years of operation may be made a part of the Project cost. SLWM projects can be made financially viable by dovetailing funds from other programmes and sources of funding like MNREGS, MPLAD, MLALAD funds, Finance Commission funds, CSR contribution, Swachh Bharat Kosh, donor funding etc. Funding from programmes of other Ministries and departments may also be converged.

Sustainable Operation and Maintenance systems have to be put in place before the SLWM projects are taken up.

The Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation shall publish information and manuals including technical information on SLWM on the MDWS website from time to time. []

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